Referencing @ Portsmouth

Referencing is a vital part of your academic studies and research at University of Portsmouth.  

Choose the referencing style you use for detailed guidance  and examples for a wide range of material.


  • OSCOLA - used by Law students and students studying Law modules
  • Vancouver - used within the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences and by students studying Radiography
  • Chicago - Students in History use the latest edition of Chicago referencing. Support is provided within SASHPL and guidance is on Moodle


Additional referencing support


Do not use AI to suggest references to read/cite 

Please be aware that ChatGPT and other AI services currently produce incorrect, made-up references that cannot be sourced. Whilst some individual parts of an AI-generated reference may be accurate (such as the journal name, article or book title or an author) the whole reference does not usually exist so cannot be found by our library team.

If you have a reference that you cannot find, our team may ask where it came from so that we can ensure it is legitimate before attempting to find it.



Warning This guide aims to help you reference sources according to specific styles. Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

Need help with Referencing? 

Referencing can be hard but there is no need to struggle on your own. The Library is here to support you and there are a variety of ways you can get help when you are feeling confused or getting stuck. 

Start with the guidance here on Referencing@Portsmouth

If you have a quick referencing question or need help immediately chat to us online using the blue button on the right-hand side of every webpage. 

If you need more help you can book an online referencing appointment or visit our Library Skills Drop-Ins for face-to-face help (Mon-Fri, 11am-3pm)

 Compter and Laptop showing the Referencing Webpage


We can't proof-read reference lists but we can help you identify the types of sources you are using and give advice on how to reference and cite them.

Be consistent in your referencing and always check with your tutors and/or your Moodle modules for preferred styles and approaches.