APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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If, after looking at this guidance, you are still stuck, then we can help. If you have a quick question then chat to us online, and if you need more help then you can Book an online APA 7 referencing appointment.


The University has issued a statement on the use of Generative AI such as ChatGPT in assignments. We advise all students to check this guidance regularly, and particularly before submitting your work, so that you are are aware of the most up to date advice prior to using AI in your initial thinking or assignment. The Library has also created a guide on using Generative AI (such as ChatGPT) in your coursework or research. 

AI software is a rapidly expanding area and we will be adding more examples to this section as we identify which ones are most popular. Currently you should adapt the example for ChatGPT below as it can be used as a template for any generative AI software.